Bituminous Road Deterioration and Work Effects
The bituminous RD & WE models in HDM-4 Version 2 have been updated in accordance with the specification provided by PIARC. The changes include improvements to the pothole progression model, updated plastic deformation coefficients, updated standard deviation of rut depth model, improved user-calibration or the RD models, and updated WE models for patching and preparatory work effects.
Unsealed Road Deterioration and Work Effects
The unsealed RD & WE models in HDM-4 Version 2 have been updated in accordance with the specification provided by PIARC. The most significant change is the introduction of three different grading types (non-mechanical, light mechanical grading, and heavy mechanical grading), and improved calibration of the unsealed roughness model using section calibration factors and workspace configuration parameters.
Road User Effects
The Road User Effects (RUE) model in HDM-4 Version 2 has been updated in accordance with the specification provided by PIARC. The changes include:
• Engine speed model has been updated,
• Parts modelling updated to use dFUELavg rather than dFUEL,
• Constant Service Life model has been changed so it no longer depends upon the percentage of private use, and
• Major update to the modelling of vehicle emissions.
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